Derives from the zero-sum game in game theorywhere wins and losses sum to zero. This effect can provide a partial explanation for the widespread acceptance of some beliefs and practices, such as astrology, fortune telling, graphology, and some types of personality tests. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
Mere exposure effect — the tendency to express undue liking for things merely because of familiarity with them. If the selection bias is not taken into account then certain conclusions drawn may be wrong. Strong effects on the consumption of food in particular.
Existing social, economic, and political arrangements tend to be preferred, and alternatives disparaged sometimes even at the expense of individual and collective self-interest.
Availability Bias --or the tendency of people to base their judgments on information readily available to them.
Judgment and Decision Making. There are many types of memory bias, including: Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Functional fixedness - limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used Focalism - the tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor," on a past reference or on one trait or piece of information when making decisions.
Unit bias — the tendency to want to finish a given unit of a task or an item. Heuristics and biases 1st ed.
In these situations, attributions of responsibility to the victim or harm-doer for the mishap will depend upon the severity of the outcomes of the mishap and the level of personal and situational similarity between the individual and victim. False consensus effect — the tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them.
Tip of the tongue phenomenon: Ludic fallacy - the misuse of games to model real-life situations. Individual Differences in Decision-Making Styles - Research on decision styles has identified four different individual approaches to making decisions.
Focusing effect — the tendency to place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome. Conjunction fallacy — the tendency to assume that specific conditions are more probable than general ones.
Vanchor — tendency to remember ourselves to be better than others at tasks at which we rate ourselves above average also Illusory superiority or Better-than-average effect  and tendency to remember ourselves to be worse than others at tasks at which we rate ourselves below average also Worse-than-average effect   Positivity effect: Pessimism bias — the tendency for some people, especially those suffering from depressionto overestimate the likelihood of negative things happening to them.
A social check on the fundamental attribution error". Inaccurately remembering a relationship between two events. The inclination to see past events as being more predictable than they actually were; also called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect.
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. This rumination reflecting at length difference is largest in the earlier stages of life and adulthood. Women tend to analyze a decision prior to and after the fact.
Recency bias — a cognitive bias that results from disproportionate salience attributed to recent stimuli or observations — the tendency to weigh recent events more than earlier events see also peak-end rulerecency effect.
This is thought an instance of "blocking" where multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other.Start studying perceptual biases. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Some biases reflect a subject's motivation, for example, The following is a list of the more commonly studied cognitive biases: Name Description. Business Insider recently sifted through a pile of research to create the infographic below, which highlights 20 of the most common cognitive biases that can lead to bad decision-making, including.
Perceptual Errors 2. rectifying perceptual errors 3. Specific Applications in Organizations Employment Interview Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers judgments of applicants.
Early impressions are very important! Perceptual judgments are often inaccurate! No public clipboards found for this slide Select another. Jul 17, · 5 Cognitive Biases That Affect Your Work Success.
By Rochelle Bailis. 9 min read. Let’s take a look at some of the most common and influential cognitive biases in our workplace environment (and how you can reduce their effects): and you are therefore likely to remember and alter your decisions in the future based on this /5(6).
Perceptual judgments are often inaccurate! (Another reason we should use structured interviews!) Problems = A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state.
Common biases and errors include: – Overconfidence Bias – We tend to be overly optimistic (especially when.Download